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MK401: Fall 2021 (Flynn)

This research guide has been created for students taking MK401 with Professor Erin Flynn during the Fall 2021 semester.

APA Style: In-Text Citation and References

APA Style, 7th edition: Citation Tips and Examples

Visit the library's Citing Online Business Resources using APA Style for in-text citation and reference lists examples for library databases, websites, blog posts, social media platforms and more!


Treat a PowerPoint presentation/pitch deck just like a research paper. You must properly cite your outside sources (websites, reports, articles, etc.) in your pitch decks. Follow the APA rules for in-text citations and references. Your References list should appear at the end of your deck as the final slide(s). 

View the slideshow in the box below for an introduction to APA Style. The slideshow presents the basic rules and guidelines for formatting in-text citations, references, and figures (images).

Basic Guidelines for Figures (includes Images, Photographs, Maps, Drawings, Charts, Diagrams, Graphs)
Images, photographs, maps, drawings, charts, diagrams, and graphs are called Figures
  • Any figure used in your presentation requires a figure number and title.
  • A note may be used (if necessary) to describe the contents.
  • If the image is not your own work, you must include copyright attribution in a note.
  • Provide a corresponding reference list entry for each figure.

Copyright Attribution
  • If an image is reproduced from another source, include copyright attribution in the Note. 
  • The format of the copyright attribution depends on the type of source (book/report, article, web page), but in all cases it includes the title of the work, author, year of publication, and the source, followed by the copyright year and the name of the copyright holder. The corresponding reference list entry will use the same pieces of information, but in a different order. 
  • It may be permissible to reprint or adapt copyrighted work without permission under the principle of “Fair Use”. A copyright attribution is still required.
  • Generally speaking, if the reproduction of a figure or image is for academic use (e.g. paper or presentation for a class) it is probably covered by Fair Use. View the library’s Fair Use guide for more information.

For more copyright attribution and fair use information and examples see pages 384-391, including Tables 12.1 and 12.2, of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition.

Copyright Guidelines for Clip Art or Stock Images

There are special requirements for clip art and stock images.

  • Follow the terms of the license associated with the image you want to reproduce.
    • If the license states “no attribution required,” then do not provide an APA Style reference, in-text citation, or copyright attribution.
    • If the license says that attribution is required, then provide copyright attribution in the figure note and a reference list entry for the image in the reference list. The copyright attribution is used instead of an in-text citation
  • In PowerPoint presentations:
    • The Figure number and Title for clip art/stock images are optional.
    • If copyright attribution is required, a figure Note containing copyright attribution is required on the slide. Place the note underneath the image. [Bentley Library modification for PowerPoint presentations: you can opt to put the copyright attribution at the bottom of the slide on which the reproduced image appears.]
  • More information about public domain images, Creative Commons licenses, and copyright is available on the library's Copyright Information guide.

Citing Images in APA Style – Rules and MK411 Modifications

Special modifications to APA Style image citation rules for MK411 corporate immersion presentations. This document presents guidelines and examples for different types of images.

Slideshow: Citing Sources in APA Style - Tips and Examples