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Citing Online Business Resources using APA Style (7th Edition)

Tips and examples for citing online resources, including articles, reports, webpages, library databases.
Special Note About the Examples Below: 
The examples provided on this guide follow the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition. While the APA provides clear instructions for most standard publication types, some business resources have unique elements that make the guidelines open to interpretation (e.g. considering whether a database publishes work of  "wide circulation", "limited circulation" or "original, proprietary content"). Some examples provided below contain adaptations made by the Bentley Library's reference librarians to enhance the clarity of the citations for the Bentley University community.

Annual Report / Form 10-K

  • If you retrieved an annual report or 10-K from the company's website, cite it as you would cite a website. For an example, go to the website examples box and look at the Facebook example.
  • If you retrieved an annual report or 10-K from a database, cite it as information retrieved from that database. For examples, go to the applicable database box below (e.g. D&B Hoovers, FactSet, Mergent, etc.)

Article With a DOI

Holland, C. P. (1995). Cooperative supply chain management: The impact of interorganizational information systems. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, 4(2), 117-133.

Article Without a DOI, from an Academic Database or Print Version

If the article does not have a DOI and is from an academic research database, end the reference after the page range. In this case the reference is the same as for a print article. 

Journal Article

Arruda-Filho, E., Cabusas, J., & Dholakia, N. (2010). Social behavior and brand devotion among iPhone innovators. International Journal of Information Management, 30(6), 475-480.

Magazine Article

Twenge, J. M. (2017, September). Has the smartphone destroyed a generation? Atlantic, 320(2), 58–65.

Newspaper Article

Burkitt, L. (2010, December 16). McDonald's joins the line looking to expand in China. Wall Street Journal [Eastern edition], p. B.8. 

Article Without a DOI but With a non-database ("free") URL

If the article does not have a DOI but does have a URL that will resolve for readers (e.g., it is from an online journal, magazine or newspaper that is not part of a database), include the URL of the article at the end of the reference.

Huerta, D., Perez-Liston, D., & Jackson, D. (2011). The impact of TARP bailouts on stock market volatility and investor fear. Banking and Finance Review, 3(1), 45-54.

Blog Post

Stoddart, T. (2020, July 1). Content marketing: A modern guide. Copyblogger.

Books, eBooks and Book Chapters

Use the same format for both print books and ebooks.

  • Provide the author, year of publication, title, and publisher of the book. Include any edition information in parentheses after the title, without italics.
  • If the book includes a DOI or URL include it in the reference after the publisher name. 
  • If the book is an ebook from an academic research database and does not have a DOI, end the book reference after the publisher name. Do not include database information in the reference. The reference in this case is the same as for a print book..
  • If the author and publisher are the same, omit the publisher from the source element.


Lewis, R., & Dart, M. (2010). The new rules of retail: Competing in the world's toughest marketplace. Palgrave Macmillan.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed).

Edited Book

Jameson, J. (Ed.). (2020). International perspectives on leadership in higher education: Critical thinking for global challenges. Routledge.  

Nakayama, T. K., & Halualani, R. T. (Eds.). (2011). The handbook of critical intercultural communication. Wiley.

Book Chapter

Smith, A. C. T. (2017). Sport marketing. In R. Hoye & M. M. Parent (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of sport management (pp. 138-159). Sage.

Business Insights: Essentials - Market Share Reporter, SWOT Report, & Company Profile

Company Profile

Gale Group. (n.d.) Uber Technologies, Inc. [Company profile]. Business Insights: Essentials. Retrieved January 25, 2022, from

Market Share Reporter entry

Top frozen potato specialty makers, 2019. (2021). In V. L. Burton, & R. S. Lazich (Eds.), Market share reporter (31st ed.). Gale.

SWOT Report

GlobalData. (2020, May). Abbott Laboratories [SWOT report]. Business Insights: Essentials.

Claritas 360

Claritas. (2017). Pop facts demographics report: Middlesex County [Data]. Retrieved September January 29, 2019, from

Claritas. (2019). Market potential report: Alcohol in analysis area Boston, et al MA-NH Nielsen Designated Market Area (DMA)[Data]. Retrieved January 29, 2019, from

Claritas. (2020). Profile worksheet: Quick service restaurants used past 30 days Five Guys (A) [Data]. Retrieved August 5, 2020, from

Data Sets

Harris, K. M., & Udry, J. R. (2018, August 6). National longitudinal study of adolescent to adult health (Add Health), 1994-2008 (Public Use) [Data Set]. ICPSR.

Pew Research Center. (2020). Congress on social media, 2015-2020 [Data set].

D&B Hoovers

Company Information

Dun & Bradstreet. (n.d.). Merck & Co. Inc. [Company profile]. D&B Hoovers. Retrieved August 10, 2020, from

Dun & Bradstreet. (2019, November 12). CRUSH Report for Merck & Co. Inc. D&B Hoovers.

Merck & Co. Inc. (2020, February 26). Form 10-K. D&B Hoovers.

SWOT, Industry and Analyst Reports

This database contains reports authored by a variety of sources (e.g. MarketLine, GlobalData). Cite the original source of the data in the author element.

Clarivate Analytics. (2020, April 5). Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp: Cortellis company and pipeline overview report. D&B Hoovers.

GlobalData. (2020, May 22). Merck & Co. Inc. [SWOT report]. D&B Hoovers.

MarketLine. (2020, May). Pharmaceuticals in South Africa [Industry profile]. D&B Hoovers.

Build Company List

Dun & Bradstreet. (n.d.). [List of public, parent companies in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry (primary) in the United States]. D&B Hoovers. Retrieved August 10, 2020, from


Data and Custom Searches

DemographicsNow. (n.d.). [Geography: Massachusetts; People & companies: Business list search for primary NAICS only - 312120 breweries] [Data]. Retrieved August 6, 2020, from DemographicsNow.

Easy Analytic Software (EASI), Alteryx, & Experian. (n.d.). Complete demographic summary report: Geography 01803 (zip) Burlington, MA [Data]. DemographicsNow. Retrieved August 5, 2020, from DemographicsNow.

Easy Analytic Software (EASI), Alteryx, & Experian. (n.d.). Household comparison report: Boston, MA and San Francisco, CA [Data]. DemographicsNow. Retrieved May 1, 2018, from DemographicsNow.

Mosaic Profile

Experian. (2019). Type G25: Urban edge. Mosaic USA. Retrieved March 26, 2019, from DemographicsNow.

Dictionary, Encyclopedia, or Handbook Entry

Entry with a group author

Central Intelligence Agency. (2021, March 15). Austria. In The world factbook.

Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Gerrymander. In dictionary. Retrieved June 27, 2019, from

Entry with individual author in an edited book

Fitzgerald, J. A., & Tengler, D. L. (2019). Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. In B. Naris (Ed.), The Gale encyclopedia of mental health (4th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 1156-1160)Gale. 

Stiff, C. (2019). Social media and cyberactivism. In A. Attrill-Smith, C. Fullwood, M. Keep, & D. J. Kuss (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of cyberpsychology (pp. 370-393). Oxford University Press.

Entry without an author

Guyana. (n.d.). In Europa world online. Routledge. Retrieved March 3, 2021, from

Dissertations and Theses

Dissertation/thesis retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database

Vasiliou, V. (2020). Increasing gender diversity on corporate boards: Voices of male and female directors in the United States (Publication No. 27963279) [Doctoral dissertation, Bentley University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

Dissertation/thesis published online in an archive or repository

Hoar, S. R. (2019). Presidential power and partisan polarization [Master’s thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology]. DSpace@MIT.

Unpublished dissertation/thesis

Smith, C.L. (1990). Job search strategies: Their effects on job search success [Unpublished master's thesis]. Cornell University.


eMarketer. (2020, July 29). US B2B digital ad spending share, 2016-2021 [Chart].

Droesh, B. (2020, July 27). US esports 2020: The pandemic puts the spotlight on a rising industry. eMarketer.

Euromonitor Passport

Euromonitor International. (n.d.). Market sizes for hot drinks - coffee - Germany, 2016-2019 [Data]. Passport. Retrieved August 5, 2020, from

Euromonitor International. (2020, February). Footwear in Japan. Passport.

Euromonitor International. (2020, April 23). Snacks for children: Targeting a new generation of parents. Passport.

Europa World Yearbook Online

Guyana. (n.d.). In Europa world online. Routledge. Retrieved March 3, 2021, from


Apple, Inc. (2019, October 31). Form 10-K. FactSet.​

FactSet Research Systems. (n.d.). Apple Inc. acquires Mobeewave Inc. (July 31, 2020) [Deal snapshot]. Retrieved August 10, 2020, from

​FactSet Research Systems. (n.d.). Apple Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved August 10, 2020, from

FactSet Research Systems. (n.d.). Apple, Inc. [Broker outlook]. Retrieved August 10, 2020, from

FASB Codification

Reference List examples


Citing the Codification

FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board). (n.d.). Accounting standards codification (ASC). Retrieved January 16, 2013, from

Citing a section of the Codification

FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board). (n.d.). ASC 605-50-45-1. Retrieved January 16, 2013, from

Citing an Accounting Standards Update, Exposure Document or Other Source from the Codification

FASB (Financial Accounting Standards Board). (2012, October 24). Accounting standards update (ASU) No. 2012-07. Retrieved January 16, 2013, from


In text citation examples


(FASB, ASC 605-50-45-1)

(FASB, ASU 2012-07)

Focus Groups (Research Participants)

Quotations from participants in an original research study you conducted (including focus groups) do not need citations or reference list entries. One reason that citations and references are excluded is that they could compromise participants’ confidentiality, which is an ethical violation.

When quoting a research participant, state in the text that the quotation is from a participant and follow the basic APA guidelines for formatting quotations of under or over 40 words.

Forrester Research

Kodali, S., & Cyr, M. (2020, July 16). The state of the US shopper — COVID-19. Forrester Research.


Cearley, D., Jones, N., Smith, D., Burke, B., Chandrasekaran, A., & Lu, C. (2019, October 21). Top 10 strategic technology trends for 2020 (ID: G00432920). Gartner.

Google Maps

Google. (n.d.). [Google Maps restaurants on Moody Street, Waltham, MA]. Retrieved July 17, 2020, from

Government Report *

The specific agency responsible for the report appears as the author. The names of any parent agencies not present in the group author name appear in the source element as the publisher.

National Institute of Mental Health. (2018). Autism spectrum disorder (NIH Publication 19-MH-8084). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health.

* Note: See the Reports & White Papers box below for examples of reports not published by government agencies and white papers.


Fernandez, C. (2019, November). Medical & recreational marijuana stores (US Specialized Industry Report OD4142). IBISWorld.

Hyland, S. (2020, May). Hotels & motels in the US (US Industry NAICS Report 72111). IBISWorld.

IBISWorld. (2020, May). Number of college students (US Business Environment Profiles Report F601).

IHS Connect

Note: We recommended including the retrieval date for country risk data/reports and economic data tables.

IHS Markit. (2020, May 25). Detailed quarterly forecast tables: New Zealand [Data]. Retrieved June 15, 2010, from

IHS Markit. (2020, July 28). Economic: Vietnam [Economics profile]. Retrieved August 6, 2020, from

IHS Markit. (2020, August 4). Country/territory report: Denmark [Economics and country risk report]. Retrieved August 6, 2020, from

IHS Markit. (2020, August 6). WTO leadership race.

MarketLine Report retrieved from Business Source Complete

MarketLine. (2020, January 30). General Mills Inc. [Company profile]. Business Source Complete.

MarketLine. (2019, April). Bakery & cereals in the United States [Industry profile]. Business Source Complete. 

Mergent Archives

Annual Reports

Target. (2000, January 29). Form 10-K. Mergent Archives.

Commodity Yearbook

Commodity Research Bureau. (2018). The CRB Commodity Yearbook 2018

First Research Industry Profile

Dun & Bradstreet First Research. (2020, April 27). Drug stores [Industry profile]. Mergent Archives.

D&B Industry Norms and Key Business Ratios

Dun & Bradstreet. (2018). SIC 5812 Eating places [Industry ratios]. In Industry norms and key business ratios.

Mergent Manual

Mergent. (2018). Dell Technologies. In Mergent OTC Unlisted Manual.  

Mergent Intellect

Company information

Deutsche Bank. (2020, March 3). Form 20-F. Mergent Intellect.

Mergent. (n.d.) Tesla, Inc.: Company description. Mergent Intellect. Retrieved April 4, 2020, from

Custom Search

Mergent. (n.d.). [Advanced company search: Geography U.S. - top 10 metropolitan areas; number of employees 1,000+; annual growth 5%+; industry classifications manufacturing, wholesale trade, information, finance, insurance, scientific/technical services, and management] [Data]. Mergent Intellect. Retrieved March 20, 2021, from

Demographic Information

Claritas. (2020). Pop-facts: Demographic trend report - Middlesex county [Data]. Mergent Intellect. Retrieved July 27, 2020, from

First Research Industry Profiles

Dun & Bradstreet First Research. (2020, April 27). Drug stores [Industry profile]. Mergent Intellect.

KBR (Key Business Ratios):

Dun & Bradstreet. (n.d.). SIC 7997 Membership sports and recreation clubs: Industry quartile data [Industry Ratios]. Mergent Intellect. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from

Dun & Bradsteet. (n.d.). Southwest Airlines [Company Ratios]. Mergent Intellect. Retrieved July 15, 2020, from

Mergent Online

Company and Industry Information

Mergent. (n.d.). Apple, Inc.: Ownership [Company profile]. Mergent Online. Retrieved July 19, 2020, from

Mergent. (2020, March). Technology: North America [Industry profile]. Mergent Online.

Mergent. (2020, August 6). Apple, Inc.: Mergent fundamental report. Mergent Online. Retrieved August 7, 2020,

Country Reports

Dun & Bradstreet. (2020, March). Country insight report: Ghana. Mergent Online.

Mergent. (2019) . Country profile: Ghana. Mergent Online.

Government Filings

Apple Inc. (2020, July 31). Form 10-Q. Mergent Online.

Investext & Broker Research Reports

J. P. Morgan. (2020, August 3). Payments: Interesting chess move by Apple buying Mobeewave to turn iPhones into POS devices. Mergent Online.

MarketLine. (2020, June). Apple, Inc.: MarketLine strategy, SWOT and corporate finance report. Mergent Online.

Zacks. (2020, July 28). Apple, Inc.: Zacks company report. Mergent Online.

Mintel Reports

Mintel. (2018, December). Natural and organic personal care consumer - US.

Mintel. (2020, May). Marketing to Gen Z - US.

Mintel. (2020, July 28). Brands help advance the visibility and inclusion of transgender adults.

Mosaic USA

Experian. (2019). Type G25: Urban edge. Mosaic USA. Retrieved March 26, 2019, from DemographicsNow database.

MRI-SImmons Insights


Note: Because it would be very difficult to provide a title that describes all of the variables included in a custom crosstab analysis, simply list the name of the study used as the title.

MRI Simmons. (2019). Fall 2019 NHCS adult study 12 month [Data set]. MRI-Simmons Insights.

MRI Simmons. (2019). Fall 2019 Simmons Connect Plus [Data set]. MRI-Simmons Insights.

Quick Report

MRI Simmons. (2019). Demographic profile quick report: Fast food restaurants visit most often Dunkin' Donuts (Fall 2019 NHCS adult study 12 month) [Data set]. MRI-Simmons Insights.

MRI Simmons. (2019). Social media profile quick report: National Football League (NFL) very interested (Fall 2019 Simmons Connect Plus study) [Data set]. MRI-Simmons Insights.

Nexis Uni - Company Dossiers & Create Company Lists

LexisNexis company dossiers pull together information from different sources, some published by LexisNexis (e.g. Corporate Affiliations) and some from outside publishers (e.g. Gale, Morningstar, MarketLine).  Cite the publisher of the information you used.  Articles retrieved from LexisNexis Academic are cited according the guidelines for Article Without a DOI, from an Academic Database or Print Version as shown in above on this page.

Company Dossiers/Company Info search

Comparably. (July 31, 2020). The TJX Companies, Inc. Nexis Uni.

LexisNexis. (2019, November 18). Amazon [Company profile]. Corporate Affiliations.

Weiss Ratings. (2020, June 23). VMware Inc. Weiss Stock Research Reports. Nexis Uni.

Create a Company list

LexisNexis. (n.d). [List of Fortune 500 companies headquartered in Massachusetts]. Retrieved August 5, 2020, from

Personal Communications

Part of the purpose of a reference is to lead your reader back to the source you used, but in some cases a source may not be retrievable. (e.g. private letters and email, personal conversations, phone calls, interviews and unrecorded webinars). These sources are treated as personal communications

Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in-text only. The in-text citation should include the initials and last name of the person and the date of the communication.

Examples of in-text citations for a personal communication:

J. Smith (personal communication, January 5, 2020) described how his company connected with customers through storytelling.

One of the key ways that a brand can connect with customers is through storytelling (J. Smith, personal communication, January 5, 2020).

Plunkett Research Online

Plunkett, J. W., Plunkett, M. B., Steinberg, J. S., Faulk, J., & Snider, I. J. (n.d.). GrubHub Inc. [Company profile]. Plunkett Research Online. Retrieved August 7, 2020, from

Note: we recommend including a retrieval date for the industry information because it is not archived.

Plunkett, J. W., Plunkett, M. B., & Snider, I. J. (2020, March 18). The sharing & gig economy's effect on employment, work life and careers. Sharing Economy Industry. Plunkett Research Online. Retrieved August 7, 2020, from


Raz, G. (Host). (2016-present). How I built this with Guy Raz [Audio podcast]. NPR.

Favreau, J., Lovett, J., & Vietor, T. (Hosts). (2020, June 1). Justice for George Floyd [Audio podcast episode]. In Pod Save America. Crooked Media.

PowerPoint Slides or Lecture Notes

PowerPoint slides available online

Ogilvy Consulting. (2020, January 26). What's next: Social media trends 2020 [Slides]. Slideshare.

PowerPoint Slides and documents posted on your Blackboard course site 

If the slides come from a classroom website, learning management system (e.g., Blackboard) or company intranet that your reader can access, provide the name of the site and its URL (use the login page URL for sites requiring login). If the audience for which are you writing does not have access to the documents, cite them as a personal communication.

AAA Exterminators. (2018, August 27). Company presentation [PowerPoint slides]. GB320 Blackboard course site.

Abdul, M. (2018). Customer value proposition [Lecture notes]. GB214 Blackboard course site.

Press Release

Chipotle Mexican Grill. (2021, March 4). Chipotle announces executive compensation metrics tied to sustainability goals [Press release]. 


PrivCo. (n.d.). Epic Games Inc. [Company profile]. Retrieved August 7, 2020, from

ReferenceUSA / Data Axle

Company Profile

Date Axle. (n.d.). New Balance Athletics, Brighton, MA [Headquarter] [Company profile]. ReferenceUSA. Retrieved February 15, 2022, from

Company List

Data Axle. (n.d.). [List of companies in Providence, RI with 100-999 employees]. ReferenceUSA. Retrieved February 15, 2022, from

Reports & Whitepapers *

Report with Group Author

Committee for Economic Development of the Conference Board. (2018, April 11). Helping skilled workers return to work following a career break: Tapping under-utilized talent to grow the economy.

Report with Individual Author

Foster, Trish. (2019, Fall). The workplace journey: Caregiving, career breaks, and reentry. Gloria Cordes Larson Center for Women and Business, Bentley University.

White Paper with Group Author

IBM. (2018, May). The path to data veracity: How to build a trusted analytics foundation [White paper].

White Paper with Individual Authors

Lava, S., & Marden, M. (2020, July). The business value of improved performance and efficiency with Google Cloud Platform [White paper]. IDC.  

* Note: See the Government Reports box above for example of reports by government agencies. 

Richard K. Miller & Associates (RKMA)

Miller, R. K., & Washington, K. (2020). Sports marketing 2020-2021. Richard K. Miller & Associates.

S&P Capital IQ NetAdvantage

Company Information

Standard & Poor's. (n.d.). Tenet Healthcare [Company profile]. S&P Capital IQ NetAdvantage. Retrieved August 10, 2020, from

Standard & Poor's. (n.d.). Tenet Healthcare [Company ratios]. S&P Capital IQ NetAdvantage. Retrieved August 10, 2020, from

Tenet Healthcare. (2019, December 31). Form 10-K. S&P Capital IQ NetAdvantage.

Industry Survey

Meyer, P., & Ko, W. (2020, June). Health care facilities. CFRA Industry Surveys. S&P Capital IQ NetAdvantage.

Stock Report

CFRA. (2020, August 6). Tenet Healthcare [Stock report]. S&P Capital IQ NetAdvantage.

Sports Market Analytics (SBRnet)

National Sporting Goods Association. (n.d.). Soccer balls: Market size, total consumer purchases [Data]. Sports Market Analytics. Retrieved July 14, 2020, from

SBRNet. (n.d.). Soccer: MLS fan market summary [Data]. Sports Market Analytics. Retrieved July 14, 2020, from

SFIA. (2021). Soccer: Participation by total age group (% of part.), 2018 [Data]. Sports Market Analytics.

SFIA. (2021). Basketball: Total participation, 2020 [Data]. Sports Market Analytics.

Sport and Fitness Industry Association. (2021). SFIA sports, fitness, and leisure activities topline participation report 2021.


SRDS Media/Publication reports

SRDS. (n.d.). Advertising Age [Publication profile]. Retrieved July 14, 2020, from

SRDS. (2018). Boston, MA/Manchester, NH DMA [DMA profile]. Retrieved July 14, 2020, from

SQAD. (2020). Boston, MA/Manchester, NH DMA  [SQAD report - TV households]. SRDS. Retrieved July 14, 2020, from

Claritas 360 reports

Claritas. (2017). Pop facts demographics report: Middlesex County [Data]. Retrieved January 29, 2019, from

Claritas. (2019). Market potential report: Alcohol in analysis area Boston, et al MA-NH DMA [Data]. Retrieved January 29, 2019, from

Claritas. (2020). Profile worksheet: Quick service restaurants used past 30 days Five Guys (A) [Data]. Retrieved August 5, 2020, from


Statista contains content from a variety of sources in addition to publishing their own dossiers and reports. Look in the Source section for “Survey by” to identify the author of the information you are citing.

PwC. (2019, July). Global eSports revenue in 2023 by segment (in millions US dollars) [Chart]. Statista.

McCarthy, N. (August 7, 2020). Covid-19's widespread impact on mental health [Infographic]. Statista.

Statista. (2020). Social media usage worldwide [Dossier].

Statista. (2020, June). Bottled water - United States [Consumer market outlook].

Statistical Abstract of the United States (ProQuest)

National Center for Education Statistics (2020). College enrollment by sex and attendance status: 2000 to 2017 (by age, selected years, as of fall). [Data]. In ProQuest Statistical Abstract of the U.S. 

U. S. Census

U.S. Census Bureau. (2018). All Sectors: County Business Patterns by Legal Form of Organization and Employment Size Class for U.S., States, and Selected Geographies 2018: Middlesex County, MA (Table CB1800CBP) [Data]. lastDisplayedRow=18&g=0500000US25017

U.S. Census Bureau. (2018). Selected social characteristics, American Community Survey 5-Year estimates: San Antonio, TX (Table DP02) [Data].,%20Texas&g=1600000US4865000&hidePreview= true&tid=ACSDP5Y2018.DP02&table=DP02

U. S. Cenus Bureau. (n.d.). Quick facts: Waltham, MA [Data]. Retrieved August 9, from,US/PST045219

U. S. Census Bureau. (n .d.) Profile: Chicago, IL [Data]. Retrieved August 9, 2020, from,%20Illinois&g=1600000US1714000

Value Line

Note: We recommend retrieving the PDF version to help with finding the date of the report.

Value Line. (2020, July 17). Coca-Cola. Value Line Research Center.

Video & Streaming Film

Describe the work in square brackets in the title element. It is not necessary to specify how you watch a film (e.g. in a theater or streaming online), however you may include any special information in the format description (e.g. Film; Director's Cut).

Film or Video

Tarantino, Q. (Director). (2019). Once upon a Hollywood [Film]. Heyday Films; Bona Film Group; Columbia Pictures. 

Bateman, J., Dubuque, B., & Williams, M. (Executive Producers). (2017-present). Ozark [TV series]. Zero Gravity Management; Media Rights Capital (MRC); Netflix.

Films on Demand database

HBO. (2007). Little Rock Central High: 50 years later [Film]. Films on Demand.

NewsHour Productions. (2018). Climate activist Greta Thunberg on the power of a movement [Video]. Films on Demand.


CHOICE Media Channel. (2019, October 25). What’s new in APA style—Inside the seventh edition of the Publication Manual of the APA [Video]. YouTube.


Use this format only for recorded, retrievable webinars. Cite unrecorded webinars as personal communications. 

Neher, K. (2019, September 28). Design a customer experience transformation [Webinar]. Harvard Business Review.


Many types of works can be retrieved online, including articles, books, data sets, and reports. Use the "webpages" and "websites" category only when the work does not fall into a different category

  • Do not create references or in-text citations for whole websites.To mention a website in general, and not any particular information on that site, provide the name of the website in the text and include the URL in parentheses. For example, you might mention that you used Qualtrics to create a survey. See an example here:
  • If a webpage does not have a date use (n.d.)
  • If a work on a webpage does not have an author, begin the citation with the title. 
Webpage on a news website
  • Use this format for articles from news websites that are not associated with daily or weekly newspapers. For example, BBC News, Bloomberg, CNN, HuffPost, Reuters, Salon, and Vox. These sites do not have associated daily or weekly newspapers.
  • Use the newspaper article category for articles from newspaper websites such as The New York Times or The Washington Post.

Adidas paying $201 million to sponsor 2012 Olympics. (2007, September 20). ESPN.

Bradham, B. (2020, July 29). How the pandemic may change ‘work-life balance’ forever. Bloomberg.

Edgington, T. (2020, July 13). Brexit: All you need to know about the UK leaving the EU. BBC.

Webpage on a website with a group author
  • When the author and site are the same, omit the site name from the source element. 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). CDC recommendations for the amount of time persons with influenza-like illness should be away from others.

Facebook. (2020, January 30). Form 10-K.

JetBlue. (2018). 2018 environmental social governance report.

Patagonia. (n.d.) Core values.

Web page with a retrieval date
  • When contents of a page are designed to change over time but are not archived, include a retrieval date in the reference.

U.S. Census Bureau. (n.d.). U.S. and world population clock. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved July 31, 2020, from

World Development Indicators (WDI)

This database contains data from a variety of sources (e. g. World Bank, UNICEF, UNESCO). Cite the original source of the data in the author element.

World Bank Group. (n.d.). Costa Rica (Country profile) [Data]. World Development Indicators. Retrieved August 5, 2020, from

UNESCO Institute for Statistics. (n.d.). Literacy rate, adult female (% of females ages 15 and above) - Costa Rica [Data]. World Development Indicators. Retrieved August 5, 2020, from