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Citing Online Business Resources using APA Style (7th Edition)

Tips and examples for citing online resources, including articles, reports, webpages, library databases. The examples provided on this guide follow the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition. 

Figure Components

In APA Style, all types of visual displays (other than tables) are considered figures. This includes photographs, screenshots, maps, drawings, charts, diagrams, graphs, infographics, and other illustrations.

Figure components:

  • Number: The Figure number (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2) appears above the figure title. Number them sequentially with Arabic numerals as they appear in the paper/presentation. Use bold font and left alignment
    • If figures are included in the appendix, identify with capital letters and Arabic numerals (e.g. Figure B2)
  • Title: Titles should be brief, clear and descriptive of the content of the figure. The figure title appears one double-spaced line below the figure number. Write the figure title in italic title case.
  • Image: The image portion of the figure is the photograph, screenshot, map, drawing, chart, diagram, graph, infographic, or illustration itself.  
  • Legend: A figure legend or key (if necessary) should be positioned within the borders of the figure. Capitalize words in the legend in title case.
  • Note. There are three types of notes - general, specific, and probability. A note may be used (if necessary) to describe contents that cannot be understood from the figure title, image, and/or legend alone. Use a general note to acknowledge that a figure is reproduced or adapted from another source and to provide copyright attribution.
    • The note is placed below the figure. Use double-space and left alignment.
    • General notes should begin with the word Note in italics, followed by a period and space. Add any descriptive notes about the figure (if necessary), then include the acknowledgement and copyright attribution. Use the words From (for an exact copy) or Adapted from (if the image was altered).
    • The copyright attribution takes the place of an in-text citation; each work should also appear in the references list.

Basic Figure Layout:

Click image to view larger

Scroll down to see examples of how to format a Note for information from a web page, book/report, and article. You can also view more information about Figures on the APA website using the link below.

Copyright Attribution

Copyright Attribution

  • If an image is reproduced from another source, include copyright attribution in the Note. 
  • The format of the copyright attribution depends on the type of source (book/report, article, web page), but in all cases it includes the title of the work, author, year of publication and the source, followed by copyright status. The copyright status may be one of the following:
    • Copyright year and name of copyright holder
    • In the public domain
    • Creative Commons license (e.g. CC BY-NC)
  • It may be permissible to reprint or adapt copyrighted work without permission under the principle of Fair Use, however a copyright attribution is still requiredGenerally speaking, if the reproduction of a figure or image is for academic use (e.g. paper or presentation for a class) it is probably covered by Fair Use.

For more copyright attribution and fair use information and examples see pages 384-391, including Tables 12.1 and 12.2, of Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition.

Copyright Guidelines for Clip Art or Stock Images

There are special requirements for clip art and stock images.

  • Follow the terms of the license associated with the image you want to reproduce.
    • If the license states “no attribution required,” then do not provide an APA Style reference, in-text citation, or copyright attribution.
    • If the license says that attribution is required, then provide copyright attribution in the figure note and a reference list entry for the image in the reference list. The copyright attribution is used instead of an in-text citation
  • In PowerPoint presentations:
    • The Figure number and Title for clip art/stock images are optional.
    • If copyright attribution is required, a figure Note containing copyright attribution is required on the slide. Place the note underneath the image.

Figure Note Examples

Web page

Note format:

Note. From Title of Web Page by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, Year, Site Name* (URL). Copyright [Date] by Name of Copyright Holder.

*omit the site name when the site name and the author are the same, as is often the case with group authors

Example 1:

Note. From On the Cusp of Adulthood and Facing an Uncertain Future: What We Know About Gen Z So Far by K. Parker and R. Igielnik, 2020, Pew Research Center ( Copyright 2020 by Pew Research Center.

Example 2 (author same as site name):

Note. From Streaming Usage Rebounds in May, and The Gauge Welcomes a Third FAST Service by Nielsen, 2023 ( Copyright 2023 by Nielsen.

Example 3 (image in public domain from government website): 

Note. From A New View of Life Expectancy by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, n.d. ( In the public domain.

Example 4 (image with Creative Commons license)

Note. From Boston Marathon Finish Line by Greater Boston Convention & Visitors Bureau, 2009, Flikr ( CC BY-NC-ND 2.0. 

Authored book or report

Note Format:

Note. From Title of Book or Report (p. xx) by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, Year, Publisher* (DOI or URL). Copyright [Date] by Name of Copyright Holder.

*omit the publisher when the publisher and the author are the same, as is often the case with group authors

Example 1:

Note: From Energy Drink Production in the US (p. 5) by A. Rose, 2023, IBISWorld ( Copyright 2023 by IBISWorld.

Example 2 (author same as publisher):

Note. From Sustainable Consumption in the U.S. 2023 (p. 10) by Statista, 2023 ( Copyright 2023 by Statista.

Scholarly journal article

Note Format:

Note. From “Title of Article” by A. A. Author and B. B. Author, Year, Journal Name, volume(number), p. xx (DOI). Copyright [Date] by Name of Copyright Holder.


Note. From “The Impact of COVID-19 on Women’s Physical Activity Behavior and Mental Well-Being” by C. P. Nienhuis & I. A. Lesser, 2021, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health17(23), p. 9036 ( Copyright 2021 by MDPI.