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Citing Online Business Resources using APA Style (7th Edition)

Tips and examples for citing online resources, including articles, reports, webpages, library databases.

Basic Principles of In-Text Citation

The examples provided on this guide follow the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition

In-text Citations: The Basics


An in-text citation is needed when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in the reference list of the paper. (The only exception to this is personal communications, which are cited in-text but are not included on the references list.)

  • APA format uses the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the last name of the author(s) or the name of the group author and the year of publication should appear in the text. 
  • In-text references can be either parenthetical or narrative. 
Examples of parenthetical and narrative in-text citation when paraphrasing


Parenthetical

Successful engagement in the flipped classroom is dependent upon early buy-in from students (Gilboy et al., 2015).

Narrative

A study conducted by Gilboy et al. (2015) showed that successful engagement in the flipped classroom is dependent upon early buy-in from students. 
  

In 2015, Gilboy et al. conducted a study of flipped classrooms and concluded that successful engagement was dependent upon early buy-in from students. 

Authors

Number of authors and abbreviations:

  • For a work with one or two authors, include the name(s) in every citation:
    • (Smith, 2018)
    • (Gonzalez & Ferreira, 2010)
  • For a work with three or more authors, include the name of the first author plus “et al.” in every citation, unless doing so would create ambiguity:
    • (Johnson et al., 2019)
  • The name of a group author can sometimes be abbreviated. Use the full name in the first citation and use the abbreviation in subsequent citations:
    • First citation: (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 2020)
    • Subsequent citations: (CDC, 2020)

Dates

Dates in Citations:

  • The year in the in-text citation should match the year in the reference list entry.
  • Use only the year in the in-text citation, even if the reference list entry contains a more specific date (e.g., year, month, and day).
  • For works with no date, use “n.d.” in the in-text citation.
    • (Deloitte, n.d.)

Citations With Same Author and Date

Citations with same author and date:

  • When multiple works cited in a paper have the same author and date you must differentiate between them to avoid ambiguity in the corresponding in-text citation. Add a lower case letter, starting with ‘a’ and continuing sequentially, after the year in both the reference list entry and the in-text citation
    • The format for references with years is 2020a2020b2020c
      • (Smith, 2020a), (Smith, 2020b)
    • The format for references with no date is n.d.-an.d.-bn.d.-c
      • (Deloitte, n.d.-a)  (Deloitte, n.d.-b)

Quotations

Quotations:

  • In-text citations for quotations should also include a page number. If there isn't a page number, use a paragraph number, section heading or time stamp (for audiovisual material). For example:
    • (Yu et al., 2019, p. 25)
    • (ExxonMobil, n.d., Protecting the Environment section)
  • Short quotations (fewer than 40 words) appear in the text of the sentence surrounded by double quotations.
  • Use block quotation style for long quotations (40 words or more).
Examples of Short Quotations:


Short quotations (fewer than 40 words) appear in the text of the sentence surrounded by double quotations.

Parenthetical

A recent study on sustainable fashion consumption shows "there is a clear matching of the associated costs of sustainable fashion with increased perceptions of value" (Lundblad & Davies, 2015, p. 159).

Narrative

In their study on sustainable fashion consumption, Lundblad and Davies (2015) found that "there is a clear matching of the associated costs of sustainable fashion with increased perceptions of value" (p. 159). 

Examples of Long Quotations:


Use block quotation style for long quotations (40 words or more).

Parenthetical

To be an anti-racist is to actively fight against the system of racism:

The opposite of racist isn't 'not racist.' It is 'anti-racist.' What's the difference? One endorses either the idea of a racial hierarchy as a racist, or racial equality as an anti-racist. One either believes problems are rooted in groups of people, as a racist, or locates the roots of problems in power and policies, as an anti-racist. One either allows racial inequities to persevere, as a racist, or confronts racial inequities, as an anti-racist. There is no in-between safe space of 'not racist. (Kendi, 2019, p. 9)

Narrative

Kendi (2019) explains what it means to be anti-racist:

The opposite of racist isn't 'not racist.' It is 'anti-racist.' What's the difference? One endorses either the idea of a racial hierarchy as a racist, or racial equality as an anti-racist. One either believes problems are rooted in groups of people, as a racist, or locates the roots of problems in power and policies, as an anti-racist. One either allows racial inequities to persevere, as a racist, or confronts racial inequities, as an anti-racist. There is no in-between safe space of 'not racist. (p. 9)