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GB320 - Sections 001-006 Fall 2019 (Flynn, Matthews, Zampello, Tracey) -- Pizza

This guide is designed to help students in GB320 Fall 2019, sections 001-006, with secondary research.

Business Press

Keywords and Operators

The Library's databases may have different interfaces, but they do share basic search principles.  Some of these principles are listed below.   It is important to look for the "Advanced Search" option of the database as it offers you greater control over the construction of your search.  The Advanced Search interface will usually display options for:


Boolean Searching: 

Boolean Searching is the cornerstone to an effective search strategy.  Boolean searching refers to searching using a combination of words and the three Boolean Operators: AND, OR, NOT.

  • AND will make your search smaller.  If you are retrieving too many records on your topic, try adding another search term with the operator AND.     For example:  “online shopping” AND “amazon analytics”
  • OR will make your search bigger. If you are retrieving too few records on your topic, try adding another search term with the operator OR.     For example: ("" OR    "Amazon" : "sales" OR "purchases")
  •  NOT will exclude a word from your search results.  If you are retrieving too many records on an unrelated topic, try eliminating a word with the operator NOT.   For example:  “online shopping” NOT "online auctions"

Phrase Searching: 

To search for two or more words in the exact order in which they are entered you should enclose the phrase in quotation marks "  ".     

For example: "Amazon marketplace"



Truncation allows you to search the "root" form of a word with all its different endings by adding a symbol to the end of a word.  Truncation symbols vary by database (check the help screens or ask a Librarian), but are usually one of the below:

* (asterisk)             ! (exclamation point)               ? (question mark)

For example: serv*  will search for service, serve, served, etc.


Field Searching & Limiters: 

Each database has a variety of predefined fields or limiters that you can search within.  Some examples of fields and limiters are:

article title              article abstract                        article text                   author

publication title      geographical location  company name                       product name

ticker symbol                    NAICS Codes      date                             document type

publication type     scholarly or peer-reviewed