Working papers are works in progress. They may be theoretical or statistical pre-published articles, book chapters, reviews or conference papers. Depending on the guidelines of the publisher, papers may be under consideration for submission or forthcoming in academic journals. Working papers are published by policy organizations or research institutions, or presented at conferences in order to engender discussion and ideas based on new thought or research.
To increase awareness of and access to valuable grey literature in business, economics and law, the Library of Congress provides online access both through its catalog and through these web pages to a growing number of working papers and technical reports placed online by institutions responsible for creating the reports.